A neuron is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information by electrical and chemical signaling. Chemical signaling occurs via synapses, specialized connections with other cells. Neurons connect to each other to form a neural network. Neurons are the core components of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia.

A number of specialized types of neurons exist: sensory neurons respond to touch, sound, light and numerous other stimuli affecting cells of the sensory organs that then send signals to the spinal cord and brain; motor neurons receive signals from the brain and spinal cord, cause muscle contractions, and affect glands; and interneurons connect neurons to other neurons within the same region of the brain or spinal cord.