“Transhumanism” is the intellectual movement and/or philosophy that believes in human augmentation as a means of “improving the human condition” i.e. eliminating suffering, extending life (and ultimately curing death) and providing humans with integrated tools and techniques (such as improved or entirely new sensory apparatus, communications and socialisation enhancements, and intelligence amplification). Transhumanists believe that we can – and ultimately must – engineer ourselves into a new species that is better suited for the environments and cultures we have created for ourselves.
A transhumanist may believe in “cyborgification” (i.e. replacing biological organs with manufactured analogues), an artificial intelligence explosion (the singularity), the creation of hybrid, integrated human-machines intelligences (which I call an “exocortex”) and mind digitisation, upload and emulation. (Of course, there is undoubtably huge differences of opinion between individuals who self-identify as “transhumanist”.)