In 2009, Eric Ries released The Lean Startup, outlining his methodology for spinning up a startup that can iterate and adapt to the (“blue ocean”) market, without the overhead and expense of a long development pipeline.

The “lean” methodology advocates early experimentation and feedback loops (over forecast planning) as a way to reduce the risk of business failure.

From the diagram, lean looks very much like agile software development, with a strong focus on the completion of an MVP.