Systems Psychodynamics

Systems psychodynamics is an interdisciplinary field amalgamating a triad of influences -the practice of psychoanalysis, the theories and methods of the field of group relations, and the task and boundary awareness of open systems perspectives. Although systems psychodynamics is not a new field of study, there has been a general lack of awareness of its roots, how its formative elements have become intertwined over the years, and the role of the Tavistock Institute in developments in the field. This article provides a synthesis of this history and focuses, in particular,on the intellectual foundations of the Tavistock method of working experientially with groups and the application of this method to the study of organizations.

History

Object Relations Theory

A further contribution to the systems psychodynamic perspective is Klein’s Object Relations Theory (Czander, 1993; Miller, 1993; Rice, 1965). This theory has less of an emphasis on instinct and sees an individual as object-seeking, thus permitting an 12 inclusion of “environmental or cultural factors in a systematic theory” (Czander, 1993, p.43). Object relations theory, which highlights how people use one another to stabilise their inner lives, helps to create an understanding of how psychodynamic processes within people shape the relationships between them (Hirschhorn, 1993).

Take-home Messages
  • Object relations theory is a variation of psychoanalytic theory.
  • It places less emphasis on biological based drives and more importance on interpersonal relationships (e.g. the intimacy and nurturing of the mother).
  • In object-relations theory, objects are usually persons, parts of persons (such as the mother’s breast), or symbols of one of these. The primary object is the mother.
  • The child’s relation to an object (e.g. the mother’s breast) servers as the prototype for future interpersonal relationships.
  • Objects can be both external (a physical person or body part) and internal, comprising emotional images and representations of an external object (e.g. good breast vs. bad breast).
  • The conceptualisation of internal objects is linked to Klein’s theory of unconscious phantasy, and development from the paranoid-schizoid position to the depressive position

Group Dynamics

-Wilfrid Bion (1959), three basic assumptions in groups: dependency, fight-flight, pairing

-These behaviors may result in regressive processes, deflecting people from tasks to be performed

-Unconscious assumption 1: People may unconsciously expect organizations or leaders to offer parental protection and guidance, and so give up their autonomy, thus hindering their critical thinking and initiative.

-Unconscious assumption 2: The organizational world is dangerous and participants must use fight-or-flight as a defense mechanism.

-Creates a bipolar view of the world: friend or foe, in-group/out-group. Results in a sense of unity but makes the group more dependent on the leader.

-Unconscious assumption 3: Pairing up with a powerful person or subgroup will help a person cope with anxiety, alienation, and loneliness. Pairing may result in splitting and intra- and inter-group conflict, or ganging up against a leader perceived as aggressor.

Group dynamics is a system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring within a social group (intragroup dynamics), or between social groups (intergroup dynamics). The study of group dynamics can be useful in understanding decision-making behaviour, tracking the spread of diseases in society, creating effective therapy techniques, and following the emergence and popularity of new ideas and technologies.[1] Group dynamics are at the core of understanding racism, sexism, and other forms of social prejudice and discrimination. These applications of the field are studied in psychology, sociology, anthropology, political science, epidemiology, education, social work, business and managerial studies, as well as communication studies.

Strengths and weaknesses

•Focusing solely on unconscious motivations of individuals and groups limits application to larger systems

•Focusing solely on large systems may overlook sources of motivation and energy of individuals who make up the system

Strengths

•Addresses undercurrents of organizational life

•Develops personal insight on the part of the leader

•Involves an in-depth and systemic investigation of a single person, group, event, or community

•Focuses on the underlying drivers of leaders and followers

Weaknesses

•Much of early work based on clinical observation of people with mental illness.

•Does not lend itself to training in the conventional sense. No standard solution for every individual.

•Situates the intervention at the individual level; more structural and systemic organizational issues remain in the background.

Rando

Authentic Leadership And The Psychodynamic Approach

In an article written by Boekhorst, she quoted Schneider by stating, “leaders are instrumental in shaping shared climate perceptions because followers tend to rely on their daily interactions with their leaders to understand the behavioral expectations in the workplace” (Boekhorst, 2015, p. 242). My leadership self-assessment paper will be the discussion of Authentic Leadership and the Psychodynamic Approach. In evaluating my own nursing practice, I chose authentic leadership because I feel a genuine desire to be transparent when leading and informing a team and was interested in discovering how true to this trait I am. The Psychodynamic approach to leadership was my second choice because understanding human nature and behavior is essential to understanding the people one works with and how to best maneuver through personalities. Authentic Leadership “Authentic leaders are particularly important in institutionalizing workplace inclusion because their inherent ethical nature drives their decision-making processes and behaviors” (Boekhorst, 2015, p. 248). Considered a newly formed theory, authentic leadership is based on the leader being genuine, open, and real. There are four characteristics of authentic leadership. The first is self-awareness which is the leaders understanding of his strengths and weaknesses and its impact on the decision-making process. Next, relational transparency “refers to being open and honest in presenting one’s true self to others” (Northouse, 2016, p. 203). Put plainly, relational transparency is being real and open during communication with others (Northouse, 2016). The third characteristic is balanced processing, which is the ability to show objectivity when analyzing data before deciding the best course of action (Shirey, 2015). “Lastly, internalized moral perspective represents a form of self-regulation whereby internalized morals and values guide decision-making processes” (Boekhorst, 2015, p. 248). Psychodynamic Approach Human behavior is often the most complex. A psychodynamic approach to leadership is the ability to evaluate one’s own psychological make-up and motivation to better understand self and the ability to motivate others. Psychodynamic leadership is the exploration of the of the relationship between leader and follower through the focus of what drives the relationship between them (Northouse, 2016). The clinical paradigm of the psychodynamic approach has four premises. The first is the premise that there is a logical explanation for everything through rationale of human actions. Second is the what lies beyond conscious awareness though the feelings, fears, and motives. Third is the regulation and expression of emotions which for the basis of positive and negative experiences. Lastly, the premise of humans being the product of past experiences in the development of inter and intrapersonal processes (Northouse, 2016). Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Results The results of the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ), were enlightening. Under the scoring tool, my authentic leadership skills were low for self-awareness with a score of 14 and balance processing with a score of 11. As expected, internalized moral perspective scored 19 and relational transparency scored 16. Psychodynamic Assessment Results The results from the Leadership Archetype Questionnaire (LAQ) showed correspondence to three archetypes. First was The Strategist which provides vision, direction, and outside-the-box thinking. The second archetype was The Builder which has a need for control, drive, and enterprising mind to make dreams come true. The final archetype was The Innovator. Adept at logic and reason, innovators have a natural curiosity to learn (Northouse, 2016). Leadership Strengths and Weaknesses When reflecting on authentic leadership, my weakness for balance processing is clearly undisputed. I acknowledge the inability to consider others opinions when planning. I find this to be especially true when the decision affects me. I also appear to lack awareness of self which was an interesting discovery however, at times I do distrust my feelings. From a psychodynamic, perspective, my weakness is I am not a people person. As an introvert, there is only so much interaction I desire to have before retreating to solitude. Although I am an introvert, there have been great leaders who were introverts as well. Knowing that makes me comfortable as I am. As a strength, I can motive and inspire people should I choose to do so. I have an open and accepting nature that allows people to feel comfortable speaking to me. I have a great amount of empathy which some may deem a weakness, I consider a strength as I can relate but not drown in others sorrow. Another strength, is I am a patient planner and will not rush to form a decision. My greatest strength is I can articulate where I stand on an issue and am unyielding when the issue is about fairness and justice. Theory Application on Workplace Violence and Incivility As stated by Yoder-Wise (2015), workplace violence and incivility has emerged as an important safety issue. A strategy I would use to implement zero tolerance of workplace violence and incivility is create a workshop that discusses the issue, effects, and dangers of workplace bullying. Employees would be encouraged that direct and indirect reports of workplace violence and incivility would be investigated completely and addressed with zero tolerance strictly enforced. Conclusion I realized long ago that self-discovery is a journey and leadership takes work. One must have the courage to look within to accept and develop the weakness as well as enhance strengths. Whether in-grained or obtained, leadership must have direction, can articulate goals, communicate ideas, and empower others to have the vision

Briefly discuss the strengths and criticisms of the behavioral approach.

Behavioral approach despite its conceptual strength has been criticized by many. The first and the foremost strength of behavioral approach is that it put forth a new perspective to studying leadership. Unlike traits and skills approach which focused on leadership characteristics and capabilities, behavioral approach proposed a more flexible undertone by focusing on how different leaders dealt with their followers. Secondly, various behavioral researches on leadership like the Ohio State studies, the University of Michigan studies and Blake and Moutan’s study, all propagated similar findings on task behavior and relationship behavior, strengthening its credibility and validity. However, critics argue that the studies do not present a strong argument on the effectiveness of these behavior and lack a link with leadership outcome.Thirdly, although the conceptual clarity of behavioral approach, makes it easier for people to understand and analyze leadership as well as its process, its inability to propose a single ideal universal leadership behavior has been seen as its weakness. In addition to it, behavioral approach has also been attacked for being inconsiderate about the environmental influence on behavior. For instance, a country-club management (1,9) behavior may be extremely effective when working with small kids, but the same may be less advantageous when working with front line factory workers. Nonetheless, the approach is highly regarded as being insightful and it does stand out as an appropriate leadership self-monitoring and reflective tool.

Strengths And Weaknesses Of Situational Approach

b) - Briefly discuss the strengths and criticisms of the situational approach.

Although applauded for the practicality it presented to leadership studies, situational approach is flawed in many aspect. The most important aspect of which is its research methods. Situational approach has been criticized for building up theories that are not backed up by sufficient research. In development levels, which is an important component of his theory, Blanchard et al. (1993) fails to explain why followers move through the four development levels and how these levels are to be measured. Additionally, the reliability of the research has been questioned by Fernandez & Vecchio (1997), who replicated Blanchard’s research twice but failed to produce strong evidence supporting situational approach’s conclusion on effectiveness of different leadership approaches to different situations. Vecchio and Boatwright (2002) on the other hand, further criticized situational approach for not taking into account demographic characteristic’s influence in a leader-follower relationship. He suggested that females preferred supportive leadership while males preferred directive leadership; educated and experienced followers preferred less structure while older followers did not, none of which were addressed by situational approach. To add more, situational approach completely negates the group contexts, failing to explain how leaders should behave when leading groups. Surprisingly however, despite its weaknesses, situational approach is widely accepted by various successful companies. Situational approach is easy to implement and it also give freedom to leaders to be flexible and change with time and people. It does not undertake a blanket approach and thus provides a lot of space for followers to trust and grow. For example, if there were two employees with same skill set but different confidence level, situational approach would allow a leader to treat one with low confidence with more supportive behavior and the other with high confidence with more directive behavior, providing both of them a space to grow. Hence, situational approach continue to impress leaders and recent progress in its study like that of Daniel Goleman’s theory of situational leadership continue to make it practical and applicable to many leaders.

c) - Briefly explain how the psychodynamic approach differs from other leadership theories.

Psychodynamic approach attempts to understand leadership from an emotional and psychological perspective while all others theories look at it from a more sociological perspective focusing on behavior, characteristic and relationship (Kets de Vries, 1980, 2006b; Kets de Vries & Miller, 1984; Volkan, 1988). Psychodynamic approach adopts a reflective process and focus on individuals while other theories focus on drawing common traits or behaviors. Another unique feature of psychodynamic approach is its emphasis on past experiences and the unconscious mind like proposed by the clinical paradigm and concept of CCRT. Simply put, most leadership theories talks about ‘what leaders do’ but psychodynamic approach talks about ‘why the leaders do what they do’. It proposes that leaders should focus on trying to understand the dynamic nature of human beings and find ways to keep them motivated (Kets de Vries, 2006). Furthermore, psychodynamic approach distinguishes from other theories in terms of its explanation of leader-follower relationship. Various theories talk about leader-follower relationship like relational transparency in authentic leadership (Kernis, 2003); Individualized consideration in transformational leadership; four styles of leadership in situational approach; putting followers first in servant leadership. While most theories merely explain the various types of leader-follower relationship, psychodynamic approach digs deeper and talk about the underlying drivers of each, its nature and its implications. Psychodynamic approach, like other theories focuses on the process, but at psychological and emotional level and not just at behavioral level.

d) - Briefly explain what Popova means by “fixed vs growth: The Two Basic Mindsets that Shape our Lives.” 
Popova’s article highlights the power of thought process and how it can effect one’s life. She draws on Dweck’s research and explains how ‘fixed mindset’ which is inclined towards negative perception and ‘growth mindset’ which is inclined towards positive perception, leads to unhappiness and happiness respectively. According to the article, ‘fixed mindset’ believes that character, intelligence, and creative ability are unchangeable inherited qualities on which success depends. Because they believe it cannot be changed, they are scared to fail. On the other hand ‘growth mindsets’ believes in the ability to change and pursue growth. They perceive life as a challenge and failure as their stepping stones to success. Since, ‘fixed mindset’ focuses on proving themselves all the time assuming they have limited capabilities, they avoid failure and end up disappointed, whereas ‘growth mindset’ focuses on learning and limitless possibilities of improvement which keeps them optimistic. Popova also discusses the effect of fixed and growth mindset on relationships. It was interesting to note how relationships of people with ‘fixed-mindset’ involved constant judging, evaluation and high expectations, while the other was more based on understanding, support and change. Popova’s article provides a very good synthesis of Dweck’s research and signifies the impact of perspective and belief on one’s life and growth.

Reference:

Bauer, T., & Erdogan, B. (2017). Organizational Behavior 1.0 | FlatWorld. FlatWorld. Retrieved 30 September 2017, from https://catalog.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/3?e=bauer-ch12_s02

Northouse, Peter. G. (2016). Leadership Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Spahr, P. (2014). Situational Leadership: Defintion, Evolution, Examples. Online.stu.edu. Retrieved 30 September 2017, from http://online.stu.edu/situational-leadership

Trait vs Psychodynamic. (2012). Sites.psu.edu. Retrieved 30 September 2017, from https://sites.psu.edu/leadership/2012/09/13/trait-vs-psychodynamic/

Importance Of Three Leadership Approaches

Three Leadership Approaches Furthermore, there are three leadership approaches that I would not want to adopt which are Psychodynamic approach, Trait approach, and the Leader-Member Exchange Theory. According to Northouse (2013) the Psychodynamic Leadership Approach is proclaimed to being originated through your first leadership experiences. For instance, your first leaders would be your parents or caretakers. In addition, the psychodynamic approach is proclaimed to emphasize on the leaders-followers relationships, their personal character, and traits. However, I would not want to adopt this theory due to I feel that psychodynamic approach is not for normal individuals but more so to conduct studies and treatments for the abnormal people. Northouse (2013) states that the psychodynamic approach was implemented much early and was based on clinical observations and treatment for people with serious mental difficulties (p.339). Therefore, I feel this approach is more prone to addresses difficulties among leaders in an organization with psychosomatic conditions. Northouse, (2013) listed the leadership traits as articulate, perceptive, self-confident, and self-assured persistent and determined. Additional leadership traits listed by Northouse, (2013) included: trustworthy, dependable, friendly, outgoing, conscientious, diligent, sensitive, and empathic (p.38). However, I would not want to adopt this trait because I do not believe that all leaders become leaders through traits. In addition, I feel that if a leader feels he or she does not possess certain leadership abilities or qualities (traits), they may feel that they are not qualified as an effective leader. In contrast, just because a leader may have certain leadership trait does not always translate them to being an effective leader. Northouse (2013) states the Leadership-Members Exchange (LMX) theory is an approach that conceptualizes leadership as a process that is center on the interaction between leaders and follower (p.161). The LMX theory is said to provide an advantage to understanding your management approach with employees. However, I would not want to adopt this leadership approach because I felt that it supports elements of inequalities, which if not careful could possibly lead to discrimination. For instance, I was asked to work on a project with another team (in-group) to assist and enhance the project for public viewing. After submitting the finalized project, I was classified as being incompetent (out-group) because of my current job titled regardless of my professional and academic skills. The outcome of this situation was that the manager of both teams selected my project and requested for the project to submitted for public viewing. Organizational Change Article The article I choose analyze is titled All Change? Managers’ experience of organizational change in theory and practice and the authors are Andrews, J., Cameron, H., and Harris, M. (2008). The article is based on a study compiled to examine the value of the organizational change approach for management practices. In this article, the managers are first taught organizational change and then analyzed on how they used the organizational theory in practice and how it how it impacted their management experience and skills. Their findings showed that ( ) Throughout history, organizational change has been an essential concept that has been taught or implemented in various organizations, interdisciplinary, and in relationships with leader and follower to gain an understanding of leadership approaches, traits and characteristics. In addition, incorporated to identify and enhance organizational effectiveness. Organizational change theory also impacts management styles, change in communication, decision-making, as well as the mission and goals of an organization or relationships. There are various leadership approaches this study should incorporate that would be beneficial to guiding the managers to adopt, experience, and implement organizational change. The process could begin with teaching the manager key concepts that would help them understand, prepare, and transition into change. For example, implementing the Skills and Styles leadership approach is an excellent approach for identifying leadership management strengths and weaknesses. According to Northouse (2013) the skills approach provides a sophisticated map that explains how effective leadership performance can be achieved and the style approach provides a broad conceptual map that is useful for gaining an understanding of our leadership behaviors. Lastly, applying this theory will enable and motivate the manager take the initiative steps to become more of an effective leader. Further, the next approach would be to incorporate questionnaires to assess their conscious and unconscious beliefs, values, strengths, and weaknesses of organizational change. One of the questionnaires to be implemented would be the Situational leadership assessment, which is essential for managers want to enhance their communication, directing or delegating leadership abilities. Furthermore, when a manager wishes to provide clear direction to their staff, when requesting them to effectively, they should become familiar with the staff leadership styles and development levels. According to Northouse (2013) situational leadership is composed of both directive and supportive dimension that should be applied appropriately in any given situation p. (99). To determine what is needed in a particular situation, a leader must evaluate her or his employees and assess how competent and committed they are to perform a given task (Northouse, 2013, p.99). In general, throughout the guiding process, the managers may feel intimated by the complexities; however, my best practice belief is that if the management is properly equipped with the tools and techniques to successfully incorporate and enhance organizational change the better the outcome for everyone. The manager must keep in mind that their role is essential to ensuring and enhancing organization effectiveness. The last leadership approach that is imperative and should be incorporated to assist a management into organizational change is the Servant Leadership Approach. According to Northouse (2013) servant leaders empower and put followers first, and also assist them in developing their full personal capacities (p.219). Servant leadership behaviors are implemented in various walks of life to impact leaders, communities, and organizational performances positively. The servant leadership approach builds stronger relationships, increases trust, along with placing others desires and needs before your own. Overall, the basis of a servant leader is to empower, serve and helps individuals to develop, grow, and succeed. Leadership Ethics The best practices for pertaining to leadership and organizational change should begin with ethical decision-making that is an important and desirable characterization of leadership. Ethical theory is a system that is concerned with principles or rules to guide people into making the right or wrong decision or good and bad in a different situation (Northouse, 2013, p.424). The Perceived Leader Integrity Scale is a questionnaire that measured my personal ethical integrity. Based on my findings, I have the capability to engage in some unethical behaviors under certain conditions. Although I am not surprised with my result, it is difficult to expose my leadership behavior that would interpret into, I would engage unethically in a certain organizational setting. As a leader, it is important to uphold integrity, as it is essential to the development of ethical leadership. Being dishonest can be perceived as, you are not unreliable or that you do not trust the person in the relations to deal with the information you have (Northouse, 2013, p.435).

Conclusion Overall, leadership and organizational change is prevalent to the mission, vision, and goals within organizations. Effective leaders enhance their followers and affect change for the greater good. Further, improving leadership development to instill staff development and growth, problem-solving, skills, and healthy communication strengthens the organization ’s achievements. If a leader fails, the consequences could lead to job dissatisfaction, lower productivity, and economic hardships. Lastly, leadership styles and decisions should display positive leadership traits and characteristics, which includes understanding, identify and enhancing organizational effectiveness.

Leadership And Organizational Path Goal Theory: Different Types Of Leadership

Leadership is the skill to achieve the goal. Leadership is guided by leaders who lead the followers to achieve the goals. There are different types of leadership. Trait approach: it is an individual model base on qualities. People born with this leadership abilities and they used in different situations. It´s a combination of personal characteristics such as personal appearance, well -initiated, cognitive abilities, social person, intelligent ability. The combination of these qualities provides people the ability to be successful leadership and they achieved the goals. Also, person who had a high-level positions, developed more leadership than person in low-level positions. Additionally, the leadership has the attributes of organizational performance. They developed a pattern of behavior for the different situation they resolved. Skills approach: this approach is composed of technical, human and conceptual skills. The first one, is the ability and knowledge to do an specific activity. The second, Human is the proficiency to work and communicate with people. Leadership manages people thoughts to influence them to achieve their goals. The last one, conceptual skills is developed an ideas and vision for the future of the company. The connection of three skills demonstrated that people have the leadership potential to have an effective administration in the company. Style approach: style refers the behavior of the leader, based on what leaders do and act with subordinates in the company to accomplish the goals for the group . Style has two types of behaviors: task and relationship behaviors. The first one, task behavior accomplish the goal and help the members of the group to achieve their goals. Second, relationship behavior support subalterns to feel comfortable how to achieve the goal. The leaders blend two types of behaviors to influences the subalterns to accomplish the goal. Situational leadership: this leadership focused on formulation of hypothetical situation to do for be success. This type of leadership is based on four directing, coaching, supporting and delegating. The first one, directing is guide the task and roles of the followers to clarify the situation. Second, coaching is the feedback to followers to seek and suggest ideas for tasks. The next, supporting is the motivation for working the followers and shown them what they have to do their task. The last one, delegating is involved the followers to do the task. Contingency theory: this is based on personality and situation of the leaders. There is not the best way to lead a company. Contingency focused on how leader managed different situation to achieve the task. It is defined by three factors are leader-member relation, task structure and positional power. The first one, Leader member relation is the confidence and motivation of the subalterns by chain of command. Next, Task structure is the direction to follow the task or project to achieve the goal. The last, positional power is influenced by the authority to subordinates. Path goal theory: this theory described how leaders motive and encourage the followers to accomplish the goals. It has two conditions for this theory such as: environmental and subordinate characteristics. The first one, environmental characteristics is based on task interdependence, task structure and task scope. Second, subordinated characteristics related to goal orientation and cognitive ability. Leadership member exchange theory: this theory don´t have specific characteristics for the leader but it has nature and qualities for leaders. It consisted the linked between leadership and follower because the quality of the relationship. Leaders developed two type of relationship to the subordinates. There are high and low qualities of relationship with their members. The first, high leadership group had responsibility, influence, and resources. There are known in group. Second, low leadership group had low level of responsibility and decision. They are known out group. Transformational leadership: this concept is based on positives changes between leaders and followers to advance a higher level of motivation and morale. Followers had a positive change to finish in getting a goal and they are inspires to challenge the goal in a collective identity of followers. It has many patterns of behaviors like transforming leadership and transactional leadership. The first, transforming leadership changed the life of people and organization for performance the followers. Second, transactional leadership is based on traits of leaders, ability to make a change through vision and goals. Servant leadership: it is focused on serve to others. It is a behavior that leaders adopt for long term. It is founded to lead people effectively. Leaders supported them by their job and personal goals in appropriate decisions. Servant leaders emphasized on ethic, trust, collaboration and empathy. They are focused on needs and desires of followers and followers reciprocate to the group. Leaders try to determine what followers need to be successful. They do anything necessary to help followers. This leadership described the coaching role help people. Authentic leadership: this leaders had qualities in the mind because they lead people with elements like meaning, values, leading by heart, purpose and the more important thing is self-discipline. Also, they are interested in empower and guide employee to achieve the goals. Leaders inspired others in their own lives. In addition, they are not afraid to have mistakes because their weaknesses make stronger leaders. Then, this they have their own leadership style but it couldn´t be rigid. They can adapt for changing situations in their leadership. Team leadership: this leadership provides the group the instruction, guidance, direction to achieve the result of the group. They get agreement to clarify the goals. Leaders coached and involved all the team to achieve the goal. Also, leaders have decision-making to coordinate, obtain, focused on issues. They supported the team to the team in resources to get together to achieve the goal. Psychodynamic leadership: it is based on human behavior and personality traits. This leadership obtained leaders insight their personality characteristics. They could understand followers’ reactions and encourage them to work in group. Also, it blends leadership and followers to work like a team to achieve the goals. This leadership is the combination of past experiences, feelings, self-understanding. Psychodynamic leadership approached the situation between leaders and followers the pattern of emotional situation. In conclusion, leadership has different approach based on individual and group. Leaders have different skills to achieve and show the direction to get a goal in the companies.

Overcoming Change: The Situational Leadership Model Of Managing Change

Managing individual changing

Changing, for me, is a life attitude. I like live in a changeable environment to accept any different challenge. It is meaningless for me to repeat the same thing without any disruption, which could lead to stopping thinking and creativity. During the process, I was more prone to personal resilience in adapting the changeable environment. I found that my psychodynamic factor inspired my potential to any transforming, and gained the experience from my strong and weak points to have a positive view to face change and also confirmed my future development.

This essay through theory to analyze my personality of facing change, and find out which method is suitable for me and which part is my shortage that I should improve. Also I will analyze emotional intelligence and how they affect interpersonal relationship and leadership. Besides, I will implicate the important experiences, thoughts or reflections about my personal aptitude for change management.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicated by Cameron & Green (2015) that four approaches to individual change are reflected by behaviour, cognition, psychodynamic and humanistic psychology. Changes happen in the outside world and affect in the internal world. Often, it is the internal reaction to external change that proved the external changes succeed or fail. This is the various psychodynamics that come into play when individuals face with change, loss and renewal. The majority of reasons contribute to my transformation was my inner stress, which transfers to my motivation and becomes my psychodynamic reason to promote my looking forward. In the high school, I had great pressure on my study and felt upset when I got the low mark. What is worse, this excessive pressure led to my failure in the most important exam. My father criticized me that it is pointless if I would be admitted to the best university with a negative attitude. After that, I always again and again checked my problem to get rid of my bad attitude and behaviour. Thus, I improved a lot in my attitude, felt release and faced every difficulty with a positive attitude, and felt more confident before. The inner pressure also came from environmental determinism, sometimes is positive to move forward. When I was admitted by an unsatisfied university, I thought I was not belonging to here, so I worked very hard to change my situation. I chose to accept the truth in a positive way. It was a good chance to know myself again and cooled down myself to learn from others advantage. I participated in many activities, and found myself interesting in designing, organizing activities, and always came up with new and creative idea, also had a good relationship with my team worker. Therefore, it made me clear to my future career development. Another big change for me was from China to UK, a quiet completely different in culture, and the language environment, I felt hard to adapt and integrate in fresh language teaching environment and different educational background with domestic students. But due to the numerous variation, this environment brought me a lot of pressure and also pushed me to change myself to seek out the most suitable method to adapt it, step by step, I became more resilient in adapting the environment. The ability to cope with life’s frustrations with positive attitude is resilience (Cattell and Schuerger, 2003), which is cultivated with external pressure. However, Stress is inevitable and essential to our survival and adaptation. Research centered upon the effects of chronic stress on neuroendocrine profiles and cognitive performance has focuses on workplace stress (Taylor, Repetti, & Seeman, 1997). When I faced the difficulty in my daily life, which I could not overcome it in a short-term, this situation left a great pressure on my psychology. Thus, my reaction toward those difficulties was negative and loses confidence and motivation.

Fortunately, human has an ability to build a mechanism for renewal in the experiences of hope, mindfulness, compassion and playfulness (Boyatzis, Smith, Oosten, Woolford, 2012). The behavioural approach releases the pressure and reduces the sadness, by our self-regulation system to adjust our emotion and attitude toward life. For me, anything only if have the method to deal with it, it not a big issue. Because something I find struggle in that time, but when I pass the period, I feel release. Therefore, adjust my emotion and attitude is more important than the skill in dealing with the problem.

Otherwise, as Hayes mentioned, reactive sequences and self-reinforcing sequences led to changing (Hayes, 2014). This example was a reactive change of self-reinforcing sequence. My change took place through other feedback to pay attention to my behaviour and correct my fault. Continuously improving myself to become better one by further advice and guidance regarding my performance.

Managing change involves managing my emotion and leadership. Goleman (1998) considered that self-awareness, self-regulation, empathy, social skill and motivation were the part of emotional intelligent. Self-awareness, is the ability to recognise and understand your mood, emotions and drives, as well as their affect on others (Goleman, 1998). I am openness to change in a positive attitude by self-awareness. Giving an example can reflect my character. When I accepted a hard task, I got priority to my work and organized it early to make me finish it step by step. When other started to worry about their task, I used a relax emotion to talk about the task to them. So my friends considered I was self-confident person or everything seemed trivial to me. While I had an opposite view that due to my unconfident and self-awareness, I was anxious and took action to deal with any task before taking action by other. It could be a hidden area, just know by myself, while others know nothing about it. This is Johari window theory, built up by Luft, Ingham (1955) and Berney (2014). In addition, from this example, it also proved that I am good at self-regulation, which is the ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods to think before acting (Goleman, 1998).

Moreover, motivation is a significant factor to pursue goals with energy and persistence, which strongly drive to achieve optimism, even facing of failure and organizational commitment (Goleman,1998). The reason I propended to live in a changeable environment is that this would give me a different experience and inspire my motivation. Also, I always set a lot of small goals to achieve my big target. This is a good way to maintain an enthusiasm and energy to do anything.

The first three components of emotional intelligence are all self-management skills. The last two, empathy and social skill, concern person’s abilities to manage relationships with other. The culmination of the other dimensions of emotional intelligence is social skill. (Goleman, 2003). People tend to be very effective at managing relationships when they can understand and control their own emotions and can empathize with the feelings of others (ibid,1998). Nevertheless, empathy and social skill are also the part, which I am not confident to deal with. I am not the one good at socializing in meeting new friends, but I can manage a good relationship with others. Sometimes, I am careful to exploit the other emotion when they emotional make up or treat to others. But most of time, I am a careless person.

While, a good socializer makes a good leader, because of their high emotional intelligence, more sensitive and understanding the viewpoints of everyone (Goleman, 2003). I personally agree with the ‘Situational Leadership’ model of leadership, which was developed by Hersey and Blanchard (1969) to describe how leaders can develop people over a period of time in order for the subordinate to reach their peak in performance. They mentioned the four styles of managing method are directing, coaching, supporting, delegating. Through analyses different type of stuff, manager should manage different stuff in an individual way. This was practical when I be a team leader in an association. In the beginning, I arranged the task to the teamwork without any communication. Thus, my team worker had a strong opinion to me. After that, I changed my approach to organize the team and be a good listener, and managed them in different ways depending on their skills, character and attitude. It brings a great improvement on my social skill of the leadership. Furthermore, a type dynamics indicator makes me clear to know myself. It shows that my preferences can be summarised by the 4-letter code ENTP. In other words, my preferences are for extraversion, intuition, thinking and perception. I gain energy from people and things in the world around me, it reflects on my behaviour effect by other command. I am more prefer to pay attention to patterns, connections and future possibilities, and slightly prefer to decide by using thinking, logic and the facts, and also like to let things happen and see where it takes me. Sometimes, I am both preferences in myself. This can make me flexible in the way my approach life and can help me appreciate other people with different styles. In addition, from the learning styles indicator feedback, I have a preference for the ‘explorer’ style. Indeed, I focus on ‘big picture’ rather than the detail, flexible value alternatives, and willing to try out new things with creative and distinctive ways. Therefore, I am more certain that my future career would be marketing, which is appropriated work for me.

To summary, Change should be a self-enhancement process. We can not be blind resistance toward change, but need a critical thinking to analyze ourselves. Firstly, we must be honest with ourselves. However, in majority of situation, we can not realize ourselves in a right way. Self-recognition is the most important issues for many people who never thought about it and caused their problems to break through themselves. Because most people ’s psychological defense mechanisms put them to protect themselves, instead of looking directly at the problem. Besides, analyzing the situation gives a right guidance to make a plan. Moreover, comparing the outcome after change. This experience would make us have a better performance in the next change and pay more attention to our weakness to make a great progress.

I prone to break new ground, challenge established ways and keep improving, and continue learning with a constant stream of new, interesting and intellectually satisfying ideas, and to work with other and create an exciting and fun environment. Though my inner pressure and alter the environment, I am resilience to accept it and develop my advantage. The change provides me a good opportunity to review myself and cultivate me a good attitude to accept change. I like to challenge vigorously and without reserve and also like targets and competition where I can push hard - and i want others to push back. I need to constantly develop their competence and am always measuring myself against my own standards. I need a fast-paced environment, so more traditional roles which involve long training, slow pace and reliance on tradition do not suit me analytical, critical, free-ranging way of thinking.

Leadership Skills Theory

or many, being responsible for others can be very difficult and stressing. So, where do leaders come from? Are they born or created? These are common questions regarding those who possess the intangible role of leader. Leadership is a trait that comes natural to some, but others struggle with. That does not mean some individuals are pre-destined for greatness and do not have to work to cultivate their skill. It also holds true that leadership is a trait that can be learned. There are numerous schools of thought and theories on what makes a good leader. Researchers have complied mounds and mounds of information on traits associated with leaders, good and bad, effective and ineffective. This includes bad human beings who were effective leaders and good people who were ineffective. Their actions while in leadership roles have provided vast amounts of information that can be used to identify specific behaviors that contribute to refining leadership potential. Since the dawn of man, individuals have been recognized as great leaders. Winston Churchill is often considered for manner in which he led England during World War II. Mahatma Gandhi is brought to mind for his peaceful guidance of his followers in India. Abraham Lincoln guided the United States during quite possibly it’s most turbulent challenge: the Civil War. These leaders are remembered for their guidance during difficult challenges. Though some people may be blessed with great leadership qualities, that does not mean they are will always act in a manner that would be considered positive. History has proven that not everyone placed in leadership roles acted in a manner to positively project their capabilities. Adolph Hitler was able to re-establish Germany as a world power after it was decimated after World War I. Though he was able to unite the country, his cause was far from honorable. Some feel that great leaders are born. Others have stated that leadership is a skill that can be taught. Many figures that history holds in the highest regard as great leaders were at some time in their life considered unlikely to lead (Kramer, 2010). At one point in his career, John F. Kennedy was thought to lack the required qualities for political leadership. However, he was able to identify his personal shortfalls and transform himself into an effective, disciplined, and engaging leader. For a leader to be successful, they have to be able to organize and motivate their followers in an effort to accomplish their goals. Regardless of history’s leader’s being considered morally good or bad, they possessed qualities that rallied the support of those around them. Those qualities may have been natural, psychodynamic, or based off various contingencies. Leadership Theories Some feel that certain individuals may be naturally blessed with great leadership abilities. Early studies in leadership focused on fixed personal characteristics and special qualities an individual possessed, known as traits. Originally, this was referred to as “The Great Man Theory.” With this, one’s leadership effectiveness is determined by their intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity, and sociability (Guillen & Florent-Treacy, 2011). These would be considered the “natural born leaders.” Throughout history, there have been self-confident and intelligent leaders. However, some were leaders of righteousness while others led their followers down a path of destruction. Often times, the world can be a harsh and unpredictable place that followers look for leaders who can make sense of such turbulent conditions. The Psychodynamic Theory has shown that followers and leaders are drawn to their roles and achieve success in those roles by virtue of personality type (Myers & Myers, 1980). Under these conditions, communities are susceptible to a morally corrupt leader. Post World War I Germany fell victim to this scenario. During this time, there was a lack of national pride and Adolph Hitler was able to play on this by relaying his vision of the Third Reich. This vision of a prosperous Germany rallied the support of millions of followers and resulted in a revitalized country. Unfortunately, Hitler’s vision included the decimation of specific groups. Good leaders have multiple skills they develop with experience. Skills Theory focuses on leaders who are emotionally intelligent and can successfully solve problems (Katz, 1955). Emotional intelligence centers on emotional awareness and the control one has on their emotions. Human nature is to think and act with emotion, this theory argues that skill and knowledge are involved when properly managing emotion. For all leaders, this is especially important. When a difficult situation arises, leaders must be able to control their emotions and refrain from making a rash decision. President Kennedy demonstrated this quality in 1962 during the Cuban Missile Crisis. While faced with a situation that possessed catastrophic consequences, he was able to exercise resolve and halt the crisis without major incident. In this situation, Kennedy demonstrated his leadership effectiveness by utilizing emotional intelligence. The situation at hand will often dictate an individual’s leadership approach. Depending on the situation, the leader may utilize a directive, coaching, supporting, or delegating style. However, the development level of the follower will play a significant role in this. If the leader is required to make a decision for the organization, they have to determine the follower’s level of competence and commitment (Jung & Sosik, 2009). If the follower has a low level of competence and commitment, the leader can take a directive approach. If the follower is diagnosed with a low level of competence, but some commitment, a coaching approach would be best utilized. If the leader perceives the follower is highly competent, but lacks commitment, they would rely on the supportive style by soliciting solutions from the follower and making decisions based on their input. Finally, when the follower demonstrates high levels of competence and commitment, the leader will us a delegating style. Permitting the follower to make and implement decisions within the limits set by the leader. The Situational Leadership Theory is very complex, where it requires the leader to personally know their followers and change leadership styles appropriately guide and develop future leaders. Contingency Theory matches specific leaders to particular situations in order to achieve the most success. This approach is commonly used in business and the military. These task-oriented leaders are swapped into and out of various situations based on three factors: Leader-Member Relations, Leader’s Position Power, and the Task Structure (Fiedler, 1971). Leader-Member Relations involve the level of trust that members of a group have in their leader. It also includes their willingness to follow the leader. The Leader’s Position Power is the authority they have to reward or punish members based off the leader’s organizational position. Finally, the Task Structure refers to how well the group’s task has been described. Highly structured means the task is well defined and easy to execute. Lowly structured means the task is difficult to understand and execute. Ultimately, leaders should be authentic, true to themselves and their people. Authentic leaders must first understand themselves: where they came from, their life experiences, their strengths, weaknesses, and how they treat others (Avolio & Gardner, 2005). This self-knowledge determines how they can invest in and contribute to the development of themselves and others. Within this theory, leaders adhere to strong morals and values. The self-awareness associated with this quality could be the most important trait a good leader could possess. Essentially, people who utilize this approach, lead by example. Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. were leaders who were authentic. Both leaders suffered injustices because of their race/ethnicity, but fought for civil rights. Both men were incarcerated while leading their respective groups, but they continued to remain true to their peaceful disobedience. Numerous theories have been researched to determine what makes a leader successful. However, there is no single attribute that guarantees success when guiding others. Effective leaders understand themselves and their followers. They are able to use that information to lead their followers to the accomplishment of the specific goal. Most use their leadership ability in the name of positive actions. Unfortunately, morally corrupt leaders can manipulate others into pursuing less than honorable achievements. Once these negative intentions are identified, others need the fortitude to address the injustice. As a result of this constant struggle between right and wrong, leaders should continue to recognize potential within their own groups to train future leaders.

Full Range Leadership Manny of the challenges experienced by society throughout history are present today. They include shifting demographics, workplace diversity, threats to the environment, and economic challenges. All of these factors call for a more proactive leader who motivates followers to perform above and beyond expectations. Full Range Leadership suggests leaders perform throughout a gamut of behaviors ranging from active and effective behavior to a more passive and less effective behavior (Stafford, 2010). Full range leadership behaviors are essential in the current environment to ensure leaders are effective within their organization. Three roles are specific to leadership development: leader, follower and situation. Success is not solely dependent on the leader’s actions, but also on the follower and the situation. These three elements relate in that they work in concert with one another. All three aspects are required for full range leadership development and affect each other differently and in different ways. Simply stated, a leader influences others to achieve a goal. They are typically men and women who are not perfect. Many of these individuals strive to display ethical behavior in their actions. They possess certain personality traits like confidence and extraversion as well demonstrate specific vales, beliefs, and ideas how things should be accomplished. However, this is not always the case, because history has proven that individuals have manipulated others in order to accomplish terrible things. For someone to be considered a leader, they must have followers. A follower is someone who chooses to follow a leader, because of the leader’s abilities, vision, or character. Like leaders, followers are not perfect and have their own belief system. The subordinate’s willingness to follow their leader will determine if organizational goals are achieved. A situation describes the circumstances or context that surrounds the leaders and followers. Historically, social, cultural, world events, belief structures influenced the situation. A prime example would be American society during World War II. During this time, many Americans felt they played an important part in the outcome of the war. The US Government stressed the rationing of fuel, food, and services. Furthermore, mass military recruitment took place in addition to the call to civil service. All this was in effort to achieve victory in Europe and Asia. These factors influenced situations and leadership actions throughout this time period. Leaders do not always get to hand pick their followers or the situation in which they serve. Effective leadership requires the leader to identify the uniqueness of their assigned subordinates and the specific circumstances surrounding the situation. It is the leader’s responsibility to encourage their subordinates to be outstanding followers. Once these factors are identified and the troops rallied, they can begin to develop strategies to accomplish the organization’s goals. Full Range Leadership development could be compared to a complex machine. The system is comprised of multiple components (gears) that are interdependent on one another. Throughout this system, energy (effort and motivation), resources, and information flow exists between the components. The success of the mechanism is dependent on the leader behaviors, follower actions, and the situation. All of these components can contribute to or detract from the system’s performance. Effective leaders must consider all the components within the system and develop strategies that facilitate collaboration.

The Importance Of Leadership Practice

Leadership practice and theory Kempster, Jackson & Conroy (2011) believe that it is possible for the social purpose to articulate and develop in corporate leadership however it’s an appreciation of the context is needed to become manifest, the making sense of leadership appropriate end goals and the restrictions on the nature of societal discourse. We will need to focus on how worthy purpose, internal goods, and virtues can be pursued in the corporate context.

(Kempster, Jackson & Conroy 2011). Argue that there is a need to have a more developed understanding of how leadership occurs in practice, there is a need for leaders to engage in organizational practice

Narcissism & Hubris Narcissism is a psychoanalysis term used to refer to an obsession with self-preservation and self, and it’s unconsciously and consciously performed by individuals as to defend their identity and part of everyday lives (Pullen & C Rhodes 2008). Where Hubris is an acquired personality syndrome that is developed when the individuals get themselves in power positions. It’s an exaggerated self-belief and excessive sense of self confidence and dislike of any criticism or advice from others. its linked to absenteeism of humility (Russell, 2011) as cited in (Claxton, Owen & E Sadler-Smith 2015) Hubris is according to Claxton, Owen & E Sadler-Smith (2015) an occupational hazard for business leaders, political and military. Characters of unhealthy and excessive narcissism are a gap between the loved image, seeing self as potent and beautiful and this image in other people’s eyes (Kets de Vries, 2004) as cited in (Pullen & C Rhodes 2008). Narcissist seek admirations from others affirm their self-love, it’s all about having their fantasy of selfhood, they cannot differentiate between others and self and they treat reality as projection of self, “the world is a mirror of the self, a surface on which one’s own needs are projected” (Sennett, 1977: 72) as cited in (Pullen & C Rhodes 2008). But excessive narcissism can also be damaging to relationships, individuals, and organizations. It depends on differentiating between the unproductive or productive narcissism or excessive or healthy narcissism (Kets de Vries, 2004) as cited in (Pullen & C Rhodes 2008). The healthy narcissism comes in success and achievements and the unhealthy is motivated by single minded or selfish desire to personal power. (Kets de Vries, 2004) as cited in (Pullen & C Rhodes 2008). Narcissists seek admirations from others and not love, they don’t have compassion and empathy characters, they only have love of self. While the healthy person has the ability to engage in loving relationship, can feel deep love.

Narcissism, Hubris, and leadership Pullen & C Rhodes (2008) acknowledge that studies that been detailing leadership identity and psychodynamics lack the gender relation narcissism. “if narcissism is accepted as a construct that can be applied universally, there are clearly gender differences that should be acknowledged in this type of analysis” (Lowe et al., 2002: 424) as cited in (Pullen & C Rhodes 2008). Pullen & C Rhodes (2008) argue that there is a relation between cultural norms of behavior of gender and narcissism. They wanted to show how the identity of leaders can take on unaccounted for female and male managers. Pullen & C Rhodes (2008) made studies to explain how narcissism can be a constructive force for achieving and developing organizational change and how it is in normal component of leader’s personality. Kets de Vries (2004: 188), as cited in (Pullen & C Rhodes 2008) argue that narcissism “lies at the heart of leadership” and it is to the point that it is a requirement for people who want to rise to the top of the organization. Hubris is according to Claxton, Owen & E Sadler-Smith (2015) an occupational hazard for business leaders, political and military. Its considered to be one of the leadership traits darker-side. It can impact leaders in organizational institutes and cultures and political. Excessive narcissism in people who are in leadership and managers lead a dysfunctional addiction on power, prestige, superiority, and status but others foil in the ambition to keep that fantasy of self-alive (Kets de Vries, 2004) as cited in (Pullen & C Rhodes 2008). In business, a leader who is narcissist strives of personal success that came from through independence, upward mobility, the defeat of rivals and high visibility (Lasch 1979) as cited in (Pullen & C Rhodes 2008), even if the is achieved at others expense. What this means for companies is that ambitious men have to compete for the approval and attention of their managers or leaders. Lasch, as cited in (Pullen & C Rhodes 2008), goes on to explain the unhealthy form of narcissism personality is built on a sense of inadequacy and insecurity. Narcissistic leadership is being “transcultural” or “transhistorical” and this phenomenon exists in the power relations of the organization, this intensifies the insecurity of identity and create more narcissism (Collinson, 2003) as cited in (Pullen & C Rhodes 2008). When narcissists go up in organization’s ranks they treat others as not people but as possessions who are only there to get the narcissist in their pursuit of grandiosity and this hunt for fame is not to build the company image. (Kets de Vries, 1999: 756) as cited in (Pullen & C Rhodes 2008).

Narcissism in organizations Brown (1997) as cited in (Pullen & C Rhodes 2008) identified 6 traits that characterize narcissism and they can be in groups, organizations, and individuals. (Denial, Self-aggrandizement, Rationalization, sense of entailment, attributional egoism and anxiety).

Narcissism can be used to assist in detecting the unconscious aspects of identity work and to examine leaders and that’s what Pullen & C Rhodes (2008) did in their article

Intuition in hubris Intuitive in decision making can work both ways. Even if it’s based on perception and reasoning, it has imagination it that may confuse reason. Also, intuitions can be fallible, Owen and Davidson, (2009) as cited in Claxton, Owen & Sadler-Smith (2015) argues that pathological gambling and hubris have an interesting relationship. So where does it come from? It’s thought that intuitively comes from dee. Experience base structure and knowledge, Dane and Pratt (2007) as cited in Claxton, Owen & Sadler-Smith (2015) referred to it as “complex domain-relevant schemas” as opposed to common sense. Intuition justifies Machiavellianism and other things that do not reason. The feeling or “Rightness” is a deface used to project own ideas and thoughts on others ‘In fighting evil I am doing God’s work’ (Claxton, Owen & Sadler-Smith 2015). The solution for this hubris in social is to have a balance on leaders’ decisions, the hubristic leaders can be excessively controlling the management team. So, supporting the development in the environment by the good judgment and work against the bad judgment

Negative capability Simpson, French & C.E. Harvey (2002) suggest that to create space to enable one to think or continue thinking in difficult situations there’s a need for negative capability, it supports the ‘reflective inaction’, and positive capability ‘decisive action’. According to (Bennis, 1989/1998, 2000; Handy,1989) as cited in Simpson, French & C.E. Harvey (2002), negative capability has been the language of leadership studies and organizations

Negative capability and leadership Leadership is thought of as positive capability where the ability and attributed allow individuals to decisive actions even when uncertain Simpson, French & C.E. Harvey (2002), argue that with the positive capability we should consider the influence of negative capability, it involves not doing something ability. Negative capability can be an intermediate to enable one to think in a difficult situation Simpson, French & C.E. Harvey (2002) says that one of the tensions between the negative and positive capability is the practice of the negative capability needs some degree of humility

How to develop negative capability Negative capability is an in born feature of human potential, Leavy (1970: 187) called it ‘intrapsychic inheritance’, Raine (1986: 322) called it a ‘gift’ and Caldwell (1972: 7) called it ‘native virtue of mind’ as cited in (Simpson, French & C.E. Harvey 2002). Some people are born with the talent towards negative but according to Simpson, French & C.E. Harvey (2002), it is possible to identify activities or approaches that may develop the negative capability. Psychotherapy and individuals can understand their own patterns of dispersal. Simpson, French & C.E. Harvey (2002) goes on saying that there is a need for research more into

Distributed leadership Dl (distributed leadership) is sharing the generic the tasks of leadership to influence the available resources, goal setting in organizational perspective and decision making. It represents relational, dynamic, collaborative, inclusive and contextually situated (Bolden et al., 2008) as cited in (Gunzel-Jensen, Jain, & An M Kjeldsen 2016) By analyzing and recognizing the distributed leaderships and formal leadership styles Gunzel-Jensen, Jain, & A M Kjeldsen (2016) aim to enable a systematic and integrated understanding of the balance between collective and individual leadership and about its mechanisms Distributed leadership is not new to research but they wanted to know the informal and formal groups.

Professor of Artificial Intelligence

My research interests include distributed robotics, mobile computing and programmable matter.