Religion appears to be a philosophy and a social construct; a memeplex that promulgates and prolongs itself by the structures, edicts and forms it mandates (or less often “recommends”). Religious or spiritual behaviour (ritual, spirituality, mythology and magical thinking or animism) may be as old as the Paleolithic era – between 300,000 and 30,000 years ago i.


Saṅkhāra (Pali; Devanagari: सङ्खार) or saṃskāra (Sanskrit; Devanagari: संस्कार) is a word meaning ‘that which has been put together’ and ‘that which puts together’. In the first (passive) sense, saṅkhāra refers to conditioned phenomena generally but specifically to all mental “dispositions”.


The Planck length, denoted ℓP, is a unit of length, equal to 1.616229(38)×10−35 metres. It is a base unit in the system of Planck units, developed by physicist Max Planck. The Planck length can be defined from three fundamental physical constants: the speed of light in a vacuum, the Planck constant, and the gravitational constant.


In Egyptian mythology, the Ogdoad (Greek “ογδοάς”, the eightfold) were eight deities worshipped in Hermopolis during what is called the Old Kingdom, the third through sixth dynasties, dated between 2686 to 2134 BC.


Metaphysics (from the Greek words μετά (metá) (“beyond” or “after”) and φυσικά (physiká) (“physics”)) is philosophy or philosophic thought about the nature of reality: what IS, and its properties. For example: the world appears to contain many “things” – physical objects (like apples) are called particulars, and possess properties (or universals).


Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a coenzyme and antioxidant that may support mitochondrial function and biogenesis, provide cardioprotection (e.g. limiting the damage done to the heart by a myocardial infarction), and stimulate nerve growth factors in the brain, leading to improved memory and brain function.


Last but certainly not least is coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an antioxidant present in all cells and particularly concentrated in the mitochondria. CoQ10 participates in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the high-energy packets that fuel our minds and bodies—as part of the electron transport chain and also protects the mitochondria against free-radical damage.


Another useful supplement is L-arginine, an amino acid that is the primary precursor of nitric oxide (NO)—one of several biochemical pathways that are powered up by exercise. In addition to its protective effects on the mitochondria, NO is a very powerful vasodilator.


Mitochondria (μίτος, mitos, “thread”, and χονδρίον, chondrion, “granule/grain-like”) are tiny organelles inside most eukaryotic cells which supply cellular energy (by releasing ATP), as well as other functions (cell growth & senescence, differentiation and signalling).


Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a molecule used to transfer chemical energy inside cells: a series of chemical reactions called the citric acid cycle (or Krebs cycle) allows the mitochondria in our cells to convert carbohydrates (i.