Religion appears to be a philosophy and a social construct; a memeplex that promulgates and prolongs itself by the structures, edicts and forms it mandates (or less often “recommends”). Religious or spiritual behaviour (ritual, spirituality, mythology and magical thinking or animism) may be as old as the Paleolithic era – between 300,000 and 30,000 years ago i.e. coinciding with the first appearance of Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens. (It's generally accepted that religion “emerged” some 50,000 years ago, marking the transition from the middle to the upper Paleolithic era, as burial artefacts and cave paintings appear to provide evidence of a belief in “supernatural” entities.
Saṅkhāra (Pali; Devanagari: सङ्खार) or saṃskāra (Sanskrit; Devanagari: संस्कार) is a word meaning ‘that which has been put together’ and ‘that which puts together’. In the first (passive) sense, saṅkhāra refers to conditioned phenomena generally but specifically to all mental “dispositions”. These are called ‘volitional formations’ because they are formed as a result of volition. In the second (active) sense of the word, saṅkhāra refers to that faculty of the mind/brain apparatus (sankhara-khandha) that puts together those formations.
The Planck length, denoted ℓP, is a unit of length, equal to 1.616229(38)×10−35 metres. It is a base unit in the system of Planck units, developed by physicist Max Planck. The Planck length can be defined from three fundamental physical constants: the speed of light in a vacuum, the Planck constant, and the gravitational constant. Planck time is the time required for light to travel in a vacuum a distance of 1 Planck length, which is approximately 5.
In Egyptian mythology, the Ogdoad (Greek “ογδοάς”, the eightfold) were eight deities worshipped in Hermopolis during what is called the Old Kingdom, the third through sixth dynasties, dated between 2686 to 2134 BC. First it was a cult having Hathor and Ra; later changing to a cult where Hathor and Thoth were the main deities over a much larger number of deities; and even later, Ra was assimilated into Atum-Ra through a merger with Atum of the Ennead cosmogony.
Metaphysics (from the Greek words μετά (metá) (“beyond” or “after”) and φυσικά (physiká) (“physics”)) is philosophy or philosophic thought about the nature of reality: what IS, and its properties.
For example: the world appears to contain many “things” – physical objects (like apples) are called particulars, and possess properties (or universals). There are also non-physical abstract objects, like numbers – and properties themselves can be considered abstract objects.
Ontology is the the study of existence: Rene Descarte proposed, “Cogito ero sum” (I think therefore I am).
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a coenzyme and antioxidant that may support mitochondrial function and biogenesis, provide cardioprotection (e.g. limiting the damage done to the heart by a myocardial infarction), and stimulate nerve growth factors in the brain, leading to improved memory and brain function. Most studies thus far (it seems) have been performed on rats, although there is a large body of anecdotal evidence from human biohackers.
See https://selfhacked.com/2014/09/11/pqq-review/</a> When combined with CoQ10, PQQ may significantly preserve and enhance memory, attention, and cognition in ageing humans.
Last but certainly not least is coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an antioxidant present in all cells and particularly concentrated in the mitochondria.
CoQ10 participates in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the high-energy packets that fuel our minds and bodies—as part of the electron transport chain and also protects the mitochondria against free-radical damage.
Another useful supplement is L-arginine, an amino acid that is the primary precursor of nitric oxide (NO)—one of several biochemical pathways that are powered up by exercise. In addition to its protective effects on the mitochondria, NO is a very powerful vasodilator. It relaxes the arteries, enhances vascular health, improves blood flow, and even boosts sexual function. The suggested dose of L-arginine is 1,000–2,000 mg a day.
Mitochondria (μίτος, mitos, “thread”, and χονδρίον, chondrion, “granule/grain-like”) are tiny organelles inside most eukaryotic cells which supply cellular energy (by releasing ATP), as well as other functions (cell growth & senescence, differentiation and signalling). Individual mitochondria can vary in size and the number in a cell by organism and cell-type.
There are two hypotheses about the origin of mitochondria: endosymbiotic and autogenous. The endosymbiotic hypothesis suggests that mitochondria were originally prokaryotic cells, capable of implementing oxidative mechanisms that were not possible for eukaryotic cells; they became endosymbionts living inside the eukaryote.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a molecule used to transfer chemical energy inside cells: a series of chemical reactions called the citric acid cycle (or Krebs cycle) allows the mitochondria in our cells to convert carbohydrates (i.e. glucose), fats and proteins into carbon dioxide (waste) and ATP, which is used for cell function.
There is some evidence that a ketogenic diet is beneficial to the production of ATP by mitochondria within the brain.