Neural Network

The unique collection of connected neurons that makes up a particular brain; or a system that models or emulates this, in order to attempt to create artificial intelligence. The difference between neurons and, say, network nodes is that neurons are highly connected and “not digital” – they may or may not fire based on the excitation energy from the connected neurons and “ephatic coupling” (see synapse). In contrast, a neuronal circuit is a functional entity of interconnected neurons that influence each other (similar to a control loop in cybernetics).

Amino Acids

An important molecule in biochemistry: proteins are linear chains of amino acids, with various sequences of amino acids forming a variety of proteins. The 22 amino acids naturally incorporated into polypetides are called “standard” or proteinogenic, whilst 9 are labelled “essential” as they cannot be produced by the human body.When in the human body, the 22 standard amino acids are either used to synthesize biomolecules such as proteins, or are oxidised to urea and carbon dioxide as an energy source.