Hades (Άδης or Ἀΐδας; from Greek ᾍδης, Hadēs, originally Ἅιδης, Haidēs or Άΐδης, Aidēs, meaning “the unseen”) refers both to the ancient Greek underworld, the abode of Hades, and to the god of the underworld. Hades in Homer referred just to the god; the genitive ᾍδου, Haidou, was an elision to denote locality: “[the house/dominion] of Hades”. Eventually, the nominative, too, came to designate the abode of the dead. In Greek mythology, Hades is the oldest male child of Cronus and Rhea.


Sanskrit (/ˈsænskrɪt/; संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam [səmskr̩t̪əm], or संस्कृत saṃskṛta, originally संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, “refined speech”) is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in the Indian cultural zone. It is a standardised dialect of the Old Indo-Aryan language, originating as Vedic Sanskrit and tracing its linguistic ancestry back to Proto-Indo-Iranian and Proto-Indo-European.


Gaea (pronounced /ˈɡeɪ.ə/ or /ˈɡaɪ.ə/; from Ancient Greek Γαῖα “land” or “earth”; also Gæa, Gaia or Gea, from Koine and Modern Greek Γῆ) is the primal Greek goddess personifying the Earth, the Greek version of “Mother Nature” or the Earth Mother, of which the earliest reference to the term is the Mycenaean Greek ma-ka (transliterated as ma-ga), “Mother Gaia”, written in Linear B syllabic script. Gaia is a primordial deity (god) in the Ancient Greek pantheon and considered a Mother Titan or Great Titan.


Epistemology (from Greek ἐπιστήμη (epistēmē), meaning “knowledge, science”, and λόγος (logos), meaning “the study of”) is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge itself: what is knowledge? how is it acquired? how do we know it? This philosophy deals with knowledge, truth, belief and doubt.


“The Devil” is an evil figure in the Abrahamic religions/mythos, defiant of the will of God and eternal opposer. The devil has many different names, and has a role in many of the Abrahamic holy books: Satan, (or Shaitan, “the deceiver” in Jewish) Lucifer “the light bringer” (doesn’t sound so bad!) Bealzubub, possibly a grammatic joke: changing “Baal Bezuz” (Lord of the Valley) to “Baal Zebub” (Lord of the flies).

Socialisation Enhancements

Hello. Social tools are those that augment human social structures and capabilities with new communications channels, behavioural patterns and participant abilities. For example, the persistent “contactability” provided by mobile phones has altered our social expectations and enabled a whole range of behaviour: “swarming” to ad hoc events; “slow background conversations” and status updates via SMS; contact-details exchange allowing for very quick social link creation. Smart-phones and web-applications such as Facebook and Twitter further enhance our socialisation capabilities, allowing us to keep appraised of and connected to a huge number of people at any time, albeit loosely.


Memes are the hypothetical “unit of transmission” in information-transfer within social environments i.e. “ideas” that pass from one entity to another in an almost viral way. Memetics provides an approach to evolutionary models of cultural information transfer based on the concept of the meme. Memeticists have proposed that just as memes function analogously to genes, memetics functions analogously to genetics. Memetics attempts to apply conventional scientific methods (such as those used in population genetics and epidemiology) to explain existing patterns and transmission of cultural ideas.


In many religious traditions, Hell is a place of suffering and punishment in the afterlife, often ruled over by a powerful figure (the Devil). Religions with a linear divine history often depict Hell as endless. Religions with a cyclic history often depict Hell as an intermediary period between incarnations. Typically these traditions located Hell under the external core of the Earth’s surface and often included entrances to Hell from the land of the living.


In religion, a powerful, immortal entity that may exist outside of space-time (but still have an effect on “reality”). Different religions may have one or many gods and goddesses: in a monotheistic religion (like Judaism, Christianity to a degree and Islam) they will not acknowledge foreign gods as “real”, and are likely to instead associate them with the devil. In Abrahamic religions there are many names for god, including those below; generally god is named using platitudes (“most high”, “lord above all”, et cetera):


A class of religion(s), including (in order of age) Judaism, Christianity and Islam, share a common ancestor in the story of Abraham. These religions are similar in that they hypothesise an all-powerful god (in heaven) and an antagonistic devil (in hell). They also speak of heaven, a place of eternal bliss, where the souls of the chosen or believers will live on after death; the opposite to heaven is hell, a place of eternal suffering.